US automobile pioneer era – Henry – Ford

– Henry Ford Is one of the industrial entrepreneurs in American hIstory’s most influential. Americans’ daily life, both Yin Fute Car and changed.

– Henry Ford was born in Michigan has just been born 20 years, agricultural development was slow, full of tired physical labor, it’s no wonder Ford’s home the farm Is not interested. At that time most people did not escape birth to a conditional environment, Ford, relatively speaking, much luckier. That he was born in the village 8 miles west of Detroit where, when the steam engine has been used in daily production, Detroit Is rapidly becoming an industrial center. Henry very early exposure to a variety of skills, and he demonstrated talent beyond the age: he Will repair wealthy neighborhood watch. To teens, he had been able to watch apart and then re-install back intact.

and once with the school tour to Detroit to vIsit a railroad company, Henry witnessed a steam engine Is working, since then, Henry various technologies became obsessed from the merely interested. As Henry grew up, the steam engine technology Is also used in agriculture for more social, coal-powered threshers and sawmills growing popularity, Henry began to learn how they work and repair methods. Henry was 16 years old despite her father’s objections, decided to leave home to go to work in Detroit. Then in Detroit, a young mechanic, you can easily find a good job income. Detroit industry has thrived for nearly 50 years, and dug a canal in 1825, the Hudson River and the Great Lakes connect up 5, when the Great Lakes has been the equivalent of the western border. In thIs way, a lot of untapped resources before it can be shipped by steamboat in New York. In just 50 years, Detroit’s population increased 10-fold, a large copper mine in northern, iron ore and timber plants everywhere. Only Detroit, these metal and wood on the support of nearly 1,000 companies, including those in the company of Henry the 1880s the work.

It was during thIs time, Henry accidentally learned that a gas engine from a BritIsh magazine, it Is by the German engineer Nicholas – Otto small batch production of thIs engineEurope attracted some attention, but the United States still nobody Cares. In 1889, Henry the opportunity to personally get in contact with thIs engine, and immediately found its advantages. Because they do not use steam, so thIs engine Is much lighter, because you can get rid of heavy boilers and boiler water. Combustion process in such engines internally, more efficient, but also the engine faster, conventional steam and 30 minutes to heat water to generate steam sufficient to start from a stationary start. Henry liked thIs invention gas engine, but hIs limited knowledge, Henry has a wealth of experience in steam and metals, but almost do not understand it in terms of power, but it Is by the electric ignition gas engine Is.

In order to compensate for the lack of knowledge about electricity, Henry went to the local branch of the EdIson lighting company work. The company’s 1000 Detroit families provide electricity, they use steam power generation, Henry because of hIs previous work experience, very smooth entry. The job Is the perfect job for Henry, because every time the engine Is broken, Henry, you have to fix them, so Henry could experiment with the day gas engine. 1893 was promoted to EdIson’s chief engineer, hIs research and exploration did not stop, and ever since he first saw a horseless Car, he wanted to do a gas engine-powered horseless Car, but to implement thIs idea needs a lot of effort.

In 1896, Henry Ford made the first Car of hIs in Detroit factories

However, to make Cars, everything from scratch, including spare parts. Henry trial and error to determine every detail. Henry unremitting efforts, it took three years to create a Car: ThIs Is a four-wheel vehicle by a simple framework, ethanol-driven engine and four wheel components. ThIs Car has only two gears, but not the reverse. Worse, there Is no cooling system, so as persIstent fever Is a big problem. The following year, Henry wagon Car made a lot of improvements, the most notable Is the addition of a cooling system. In 1897, the Car opened 1,000 miles at a price of $ 200 Henry sold it.

after

Henry has made a second vehicle, third vehicle fourWheeler, has been gradually improved. In 1899 he establIshed the “Detroit Car companies,” attracted a $ 150,000 investment. ThIs item Is an ambitious venture, many of the elite to invest in Detroit, including Henry friend in EdIson, we are looking forward to what Henry can make.

Henry initial plan Is very easy way out: because he was recognized many industrialIsts Detroit, so he wanted to make a lingua franca in business among their Car. Henry rented a factory employing 100 workers to produce the new “wagon.” However, the reality Is cruel, difficult to manufacture such a large and complex machine than Henry imagined much, because most of the components provided by other companies, transport truck parts come later, the plant had to shut down to wait.

In 1902, Henry’s second Car, the Ford 999, Is racing Cars, but not mass production Car, more like a rich toy

the first Car took six months before produced, the company set up the first two years, only produced a total of less than 20. By the end of 1902, the shareholders of the progress of Henry lost patience, Henry Will vote out of office, Henry was only 15 percent of the company, have no choice but to obey. Interestingly, thIs takeover, “the Detroit Car companies,” the person, the company Will eventually develop into the Cadillac.

but that Is another story. In thIs story now, Henry bad situation, they have been fired hIs own company, and only $ 1,000 in savings. Henry choose to continue making Cars, but the different target groups, the choice Is ordinary used Car, rather than the wealthy expensive toys. At that time all the Cars are high-priced goods, was mainly a by skilled craftsmen of a Car manufacturing, manufacturing Is also based on the direction of the main race, the Car was one of America’s favorite sport. Henry put the Car transition from a status symbol as an ordinary commodity, but the process Is not easy, after Henry 20 different iterations before the final design of a practical Car. The first one Car, code-named Model A, the next five years, relying on financial support from friends and family, Henry put the Car in alphabetical constant iteration. ThIs 5-year periodThe biggest change Is not the Car itself, but the production process.

Henry’s first company went bankrupt, he realized the importance of a reliable supply chain, so thIs time he tried to get as far as possible from the same manufacturer many parts. He chose the company now also famous cried odd Brothers (Dodge Brothers Company), Is a machine repair before the Dodgers in Detroit, and later developed into a well-known US brand. But the biggest transformation of production in the form of opportunity, but it Is Henry chance to vIsit a slaughterhouse in Chicago. He saw wonderful and exciting things: the slaughtering process of dIsmantling the pipeline, the workers arranged apart along the production line, in the form of lines of transport animal Carcasses, each worker operating a fixed step.

Henry thinks he can learn thIs way, but the process contrary, does not require dIsassembly, assembly required. In 1904, Henry use the money saved to set up their own factories, so that you can test the assembly line technology. In 1905, the Ford plant employs more than 300 employees, can produce 25 Cars a day. But thIs time, Henry Is not deep grasp of the pipeline: At thIs point Henry Will be the production of different models on the same production line, which can not further improve efficiency.

Even so, the situation has turned to Henry aside: In 1906, Henry launched N affordable Car, quickly became the best-selling Car, Ford also took the largest US the Car manufacturers. N Ford production Car in the process, has begun a formal process using assembly line, although thIs Is not considered a modern assembly line, because it can not completely move on their own. We can not now use the vIsion to blame, because thIs mode of production also has Car production increased by 5 times. Another success factor Is Henry LogIstics: In 1905, Henry Ford created a manufacturing company, and set up their own factories, Car manufacturers began to Henry’s engine and transmIssion, thus further eliminating the possibility of any delays.

want to be successful, external opportunities Is also very important, thIs opportunity came from: Peru. In 1907, Henry began building factories to produce vanadium steel, thIs alloy for the United States new material,There was little or furnace temperature furnace can achieve the production of vanadium steel. Vanadium steel smelting in claim temperature reached 3000 ° (about 1649 ° C) Fahrenheit, and ordinary furnace can reach a maximum of 2700 (about 1482 degrees Celsius). Effort Is worth it, because the strength of vanadium steel Is more than twice the normal steel (tensile strength of the steel market Is only 6-70000 lbs vanadium steel up to 170,000 lbs), but also lighter in weight. In 1910, the French MinIstry of Industry and Commerce Will be used to connect a Ford tie rod fork of the steering shaft singled out as an important part, and they think the best French Car parts corresponding to the comparIson, each test Will prove that Ford’s steel more tough.

At the time, vanadium refining Is cutting-edge research, but Henry was lucky, and he has a pair of brothers vanadium mine are good friends. Two brothers 名叫约瑟夫弗兰 Tunari (Joseph Flannery) and James Flannery Lane (James Flannery), they have a vanadium mine in Peru, accounting for 92% of the world production. Two brothers by the railway company to sell vanadium steel, vanadium steel to find a ready market in Europe and the United States. But they vanadium mineral Is too big, so it needs to continue to expand the use. The US government building in the Panama Canal, they put vanadium steel sold in the past, but sales still limited. So in 1906 when two brothers meet with Henry, Henry on the proposal to make full use of vanadium steel manufactured in the production Car. So in 1907, exactly two brothers, Henry of engineers to help build a steel plant can produce vanadium, Ford Is also because of cooperation with the Flannery brothers, was to protect the stability of vanadium steel supply.

“You can be the Model T in any color as long as it Is black” – Henry – Ford

first Car vanadium steel design of the Car Is a 1908 Ford Model T, it Is thIs alloy makes the Model T with great success. Not cheap Model T, N and N Car Car high version cheaper than the Model T. So the Model T’s success Is not only the price, but because the Model T was too strong, very confident of its own quality. Huge difference in quality, Ford Is the only marketing strategy. Released a few weeks in the Model T, Ford had received 25,000 orders, while the full-year 1909 also produced only 17,000.

T Car Is very popular, Henry in 1910 to start building a second plant here, Henry moved to further improve the assembly line in 1913. The plant experienced a period of time each year to double production: 1910, T Car production Is 20000, after six years, it has produced a total of more than 500,000. While expansion of the Henry also continue to lower Car prices, further market share. Six years, Henry the Model T price dropped to half of the original.

By 1918, the United States half of the Car was the Model T, thIs trend continued into the 1920s. No exaggeration to say that Henry opened the American hIstory of the Automobile age. Ford in the past two decades in completely dominated until the late 1920s, other Car companies began to slowly catch up. At a time when Henry – Ford, already the richest Americans were living up.

– Henry Ford had a lot of famous spread in the world, such as the phrase: “You can not rely on you are going to do things to build a reputation.” Is to remind people to do things down to earth.

Another example sentence: If I was to ask people what they want, they’ll tell me: “a faster horse.” The phrase has quickly become the mantra of the Internet product manager.