“Behind the Scenes Edition”
1, contemporary Russia does have to be regarded as the major industrial countries, but can not be regarded as an industrial power;
2, the former Soviet Union can be regarded as an industrial power but due to the limitations of the planned economy, can not produce a global brand; in addition explain my personal definition of global Car brands: 1, the Car can be roughly divided into passenger Cars, commercial vehicles, special vehicles (including military) three class. Finally, a feature mIssing in the market due to the free trade are not dIscussed here (in fact, I’m not good at). The commercial influence in our daily lives Is much lower than for passenger Cars, most people Mann, Scania, Kamaz, the US heavy truck, Hino and other commercial enterprIses specializing in the absence of concept, of Japan and South Korea, domestic passenger Car brands familiar, closely linked with the life of the people, the dIscussion paper on the “global Car brand” Is limited to passenger Cars; 2, in accordance with the new Car sales divIsion, the world’s three major Auto market United States, United States, European Union, annual sales are more than 10 million. Other larger Car market in Japan five million, 3.5 million in India, Brazil, Russia (normal year 3 million). In addition to the Indian market too wonderful (Maruti Suzuki too strong a), the rest of the top five Automotive market, if a brand can be sold many years in these five markets can remain in the top 10 non-native brands, we thIs can be said to be a worldwide brand brand.
3, in accordance with the above definition, each luxury brand as sales restrictions can not be in the top 10 (for example, Mercedes-Benz BMW), while some well-known local brand Is too strong, too much failure in one market (such as French Cars in USA and Japan, and some European brands in the United States (almost to the public kick, sales can look at the global top three on the left), some Japanese brand in Russia, Brazil), it Is possible to do-take-all global brands only Toyota, Volkswagen Ford, NIssan, Hyundai, Chevrolet 6. (The reason Why Chevrolet instead of a generic, because GM Is a business rather than a brand, but under the brands, only Chevrolet to achieve global take-all, while other brands such as Opel, Buick, Holden and so can not hit thIs standard ).
Is well known that the Russian Automobile industry originated in the early Soviet Union, specifically to the passenger section, before the Great Patriotic War, the United States and Ford togetherFor the establIshment of an early production of passenger Cars, but only for high-level production of less use, and later in many Automobile factories have establIshed the Soviet heyday, including:
1, Gorky Automobile Plant (ГАЗ GAZ) : while production of commercial vehicles and passenger Cars, the product Is known as the Volga Car series, Is a relatively high-end brand in the Soviet Union in the Car, priced at around 6,000 rubles (then the Soviet Union average worker average wage of about 75 rubles), such as GAZ-21 models , from 50’s to 60’s total production of 640,000 units (3 Generation total):
further GAZ plant also produces various commercial (light truck, bus), but also a variety of military vehicles of the Soviet Union producers;
after the collapse of the USSR, GAZ gradually stop the production of passenger Cars, the status quo of contemporary GAZ plant Will be explained in the next paragraph .
2, Volga Automobile plant (ВАЗ OIse): Do not pay attention to the Volga and above that confuse the Volga Automobile plant brand Is Lada, Lada Volga relative to belong to the lower end models, such as a series of famous Жигуль:
3, Zil (ЗиЛ, Gill), Moscow Zil mainly produces commercial vehicles, but also responsible for the production of the Soviet government senior officials of luxury Cars, as well as, sports Car:
4, Ulyanovsk Automobile plant (УАЗ): production a variety of commercial and passenger vehicles off-road, but the plant product in the Soviet era are mostly military models:
5, Moscow Automobile plant (Москвич): brand the “Moscow”, mainly the production of low-emIssion Car:
there Is also a Zaporizhia Automobile plant (ЗАЗ), located in Ukraine, post-production all kinds of wonderful ride by Car, such as three, a few tenths of dIsplacement, known as sit four people, and so the engine Will not start, because the Contemporary Russian Automotive products does not matter, there Is not a single explanation;
There Is also a Zaporozhye Car factory(ЗАЗ), in Ukraine, all kinds of wonderful post-production passenger Car, such as three, a few tenths of dIsplacement, known as the four people sitting on the engine Will not start, and so on, because the Automotive products and contemporary Russia does not matter, Is not alone here explained.
Is more than five major Soviet-era passenger Car production plants, they produce various models Is living the dream of the people of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, 60–80 years of the Soviet people Is an ideal that Is more than five major Soviet-era passenger Car production plants, they produce various models Is living the dream of the people of the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe, 60–80 years of the Soviet people Is ideal Квартира, дача, машина, Is the “urban residential, suburban dacha (simple villa), Car” ;
the five brands in the Volga and Lada Is the closest global Automotive brand definition, because in addition to the Soviet Union and the socialIst countries, there are some models exported to Western Europe, such as France, Italy, Federal Republic of Germany, etc., at the time (60–70 years) technology, style Is absolutely not part of Volkswagen, Renault and other European brands;
However, since the beginning of the 1980s, as people improve the quality of life requirements and limitations of the planned economy, the Automobile plant technology Is almost no innovation, time and time again as the upgrading of Automotive technology in Europe and America, the Soviet Union steam Technical situ stalled, gradually behind the times, and with the Soviet Union, allowed the Auto industry received a mortal blow.
Well, now sum up Why the Soviet era no global Automotive brand, the main reason Is: because of the limitations of the planned economy, the development of models of consumer demand Is not growing as people grow in the era of foreign trade closed, mIssed the best opportunity to develop into a global Automotive brand, and political turmoil on a complete end to that hope.
Russian Car market situation
1, the Automotive market sales:
dIsintegration of the initial turmoil from the Soviet Union, to enter 2000 years later with the political Issues, resumption of economic growth, growing Auto market, annual sales of about stability in economic good year (such as 2012, 2013) in new Car sales of 300 million units, the economic downturn Year (2009, 2015) annual sales of new CarsThe amount of 150-180 million units, the way used Car annual sales of 5 million units, 40 million units nationwide ownership, thousands of Car ownership 246 sets;
2, the status of each of the domestic Auto companies:
1, Gorky Automobile plant (ГАЗ GAZ): the basic passenger Car business to give up the last two models are the Siber sedan and sport utility vehicle Ataman, then the Volga brand thorough hIstory, the original passenger Car assembly line now OEM assembly Volkswagen, Skoda, Chevrolet models;
the last Song: Volga Siber and Ataman
and even without the commercial vehicle business, as well as GAZ’s main products:
of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Union OIse Car Is only a few passenger Car production enterprIses, as well as its like GAZ A variety of industries, so stiff after a difficult period of the 1990s, after 2000 seized the opportunity to position itself as the low-end Car brand, eventually becoming the highest brand Russian Car market sales (annual sales of 20 to 30 million units), and later Renault, NIssan to cooperate, to join its Auto Union, the use of technology upgrading models, from the beginning of 2000 four low-end models (Japan Gul, Samara, Karina, Plymouth Aura), and now has introduced new models G Although he, Largus, Vesta, X-ray, and continuously enhance brand value, Is Russia’s only successful Automotive brand, a representative of the Russian national Car;
3, Zil (ЗиЛ, Gill):
but the plant itself as an industry, operational decIsions of the Moscow city government Is very slow, operational efficiency Is extremely low, behind the production has not happen overnight, and die-hard. I think thIs plant eating dates pills;
4, Ulyanovsk Automobile Plant (УАЗ):
after the dIsintegration of the Russian mainland’s second-largest Car manufacturer Suole Si Group ( Sollers) acquired, currently the civil military and survive (thIs can be rare in Russia), the main production of several low-end SUV and pickup:
5, Ramos Automobile plant operators:
Is the Soviet-era Moscow Automobile factory, after the dIsintegration of total bankruptcy, was sold to Renault.
In addition to stay from the Soviet era Car factory in the Soviet Union, Russia there are some dedicated to foreign brands do OEM Car factory: 1, 阿夫塔托尔 Автотор : located in Kaliningrad, as Is located in special economic zones, as well as convenient harbor advantages, the development Is very rapid.
The current major OEM brand BMW (X series), GM (Chevrolet, CadillacMubarak, Opel), Kia (Sportage, KX5), then also had to Chery foundry, the Chery sales in Russia had reached 50,000 peak (so far other US Other brands difficult to match), but due to the positioning of Chery in Russia the direct impact of Lada and other local brand market, and later the Russian government to protect national industries against foreign Car brands began to put the assembly of industrial policy (regarding policy section Will describe in detail later), Chery and 阿夫塔托尔 stop cooperation.
阿夫塔托尔 With OEM assembly of foreign brand vehicles, the development of high noon. But with the expansion and development of the Hyundai-Kia Group’s wholly-owned factories (under chapter explains alone), common in the swing of Russian policy (under chapter explains alone), limited sales of BMW as a luxury brand, the future of the factory 阿夫塔托尔the decline was just a matter of time, much of the examples Izhevsk Automobile plant (OIse Car has been acquired, the production of Lada, Renault, NIssan models, small plants Will not be described separately). Examples are near Taga Si (next chapter explains alone). If you want to live in thIs factory only two: With years of accumulated technology these funds to develop their own independent brands (long-term solution of the road), or OEM American brand (harm than road), let us wait and see;
2, Ta Gasi ТаГАЗ: located in Rostov Taganrog, there are maritime interests, Is now bankrupt.
sentence: as also Xiao (modern) also lost (modern). The plant Is with Hyundai to enter the Russian and development and growth, in early 2000 Hyundai to enter the Russian market, Taga Si OEM assembly plant Hyundai Accent, Santa Fe and other models, has a considerable level of technical welding, coating installation, assembly plant, as well as a number of supporting vehicles (seats). Later, with the introduction of industrial policy and the modern assembly plant owned (including conflict of interest), starting in 2008 Taga Si factory began to decline, began to Taga Si began to seek cooperation with the US Auto companies from that time, once foundry Chery, BYD, JAC and other US brands, but the US brand sales of its cooperation has been lower (note that its cooperation, the reason Will be described later), the operating rate has been inadequate, from later times has been a vicious cycle of layoffs cuts and eventually the capital chain fracture, can not even pay US corporate Cars (pit a lot of US companies), the more the more debt can not be set to the new Car, the more can not be set to start the new Car has been inadequate, the lower the start byThe more deterioration camp, thus a vicious cycle forever, and eventually in 2013 Taga Si factory was finally liquidated.
In recent Taga Si sought to sell the whole plant a US brand, the brand for the United States, if done Will be a very big opportunity, because after all, thIs plant has a ready-made plant and equipment ( Compared to other bankrupt Russian Car prices technology Is also not lagging behind), skilled workers (thIs too valuable), but also has great rIsks (local government, the former management and so on, thIs Is not to say) . In my understanding of American Car prices, I do not think an American Car companies have the courage to take over.
3, DeerweIsi Дервейс: located in the Caucasus region cherkessk good operating condition.
a lot of people there Is a certain mIsunderstanding of the Automobile industry of the Soviet era, some people may think, and our red flag about the same, more of a symbol of socialIst industrial capacity, there Is no spread to people’s lives go . Another part of the Soviet people may think the Car has been so bad, can only be sold by means of barriers to trade in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and Western Auto industry simply can not compete;
In fact, the Soviet Union Is a civilian Automobile industry have been brilliant, or that the Soviet Union’s civilian industry Is not as backward as we imagine;
focus on that part of the civilian Car, developed in the Soviet Union to the peak of the 1970s and 1980s, the Soviet Car production once reached the third world, after the United States, Japan, the only Volga Automobile plant an annual output of passenger Cars reached 800,000 units, a GAZ-24 Car of annual output reached 200,000 units. The entire Soviet civilian Car production also separation of the high middle and low, Jill specializes in the production of luxury Cars, high-end low-end Car GAZ, the low-end Rada, Moscow, Zaporozhye. Purchase of private Cars from the 1970s to become the normal needs of ordinary Soviet family (think of the Car Is where to start to become normal needs of ordinary American family of)
The figure Is the living needs of different sectors of the Soviet Union in 1966 the top 10 products, buying a Car Is red, green Is to buy a Car; (source: Wikipedia)
from the late 1970s, the Soviet Union began to export Cars to Western Europe , the most important exporting country Is France and Federal Republic of Germany, of which only a brand Lada in 1987, exports to France reached 2.70,000 (US Car prices when it can reach thIs number, or the first breakthrough?)
80s Rada advertIsing in France
in the Federal Republic of Germany advertIsing, price 16795 DM; in the Federal Republic of Germany advertIsing, price 16795 DM;
Lada Samara Cars with Volkswagen Polo in France, the price comparIson;
it Is also more expensive than the German Car yet. ThIs Car Is also more expensive than in Germany yet. As for Why the public was the last Lada ratio of scrap left of it? Because, to the 2000s, Volkswagen POLO already changed do not know how many generations, has been upgraded with the market demand. The 2010 Lada Samara, basically a moral and 1980s, so did not really finIshed the justice.
3, DeerweIsi Дервейс: Located cherkessk Caucasus, and good operating condition.
DeerweIsi plant’s parent company, in addition to operating the Automobile industry, also operate food processing and many other industries; known as the American brand in Russia and production base, with almost all of the United States to enter the Russian Car market, Auto companies are there are varying degrees of cooperation.
in 2010 before the plant Is lagging behind technology, production capacity Is limited, when the main partner Geely , Lifan and Yili Tuo (OEM Great Wall, and later as production Yili Tuo-owned factories and termination of cooperation), after 2010, with the rIse of Lifan Cars in Russia. The plant processesNature has also been progress (but with the international brand owned factories are still gaps), production capacity has increased to 100,000 units, with the bankruptcy Taga Si factories, Del DavIs as the only company Willing to OEM American brand the factory, Chery, JAC and other brands Will also shift production to the plant, a time DeerweIsi capacity become the object of various fight, DeerweIsi also a corresponding increase in the foundry costs, the amount of money Is more and more adequate, recently it has been planning to expand the plant, improve productivity, updated technology; but overall, still rely on DeerweIsi biggest Lifan.
As the United States alone, the brand began to build factories in Russia (the Great Wall Is the first, Lifan have the same plan, has signed a cooperation agreement with the local government), the development of better US withdrawal from Del DavIs Is inevitable but due to the large American Car brands, del DavIs and cooperation Is the only choice, so waiting in line to enter DeerweIsi American Auto companies and some (especially the poor competitiveness of state-owned enterprIses of various models), but also DeerweIsi It can develop in thIs way for a long period of time.
By the way, did Taga Si and DeerweIsi in a period of development and growth have tried to establIsh their own brand, but due to lack of competitiveness, more importantly, profits far less money fast foundry American brand , with the halfway all up. (State-owned Car factory looks with the United States since the joint venture, has been a lack of motivation to develop their own brand of how similar ah)
and make a few Taga Si DeerweIsi then fiddle out of its own brand models pictures ( other brand models are basically a clone):